Factors that influence success in catfish farming.

The need for food is increasingly growing today, this need is increasing in line with the increasing population growth.

Humans in his life can not be separated from food, one of which is the human need for animal protein. As we know proteins are useful in the process of growth and as a builder of metabolism in the human body.

Animal protein is one of them can be obtained from fish meat. Catfish is one of the many fish consumption is as a fish that can contribute to humans in meeting the needs of animal protein.

Catfish farming is currently required to increase the production of the number of fish available. In the catfish farm business there are several factors that can affect the success of the catfish farming business such as:

1. Fish Seed

    Catfish seeds used to play a role in the success of catfish breeding. Seeds Catfish used should be seeds of good quality, healthy and not defective. Catfish seeds with poor quality will cause slow fish growth. Good fish seeds can be obtained from seedlings (seeding units) or fish seed centers that have applied a good fish hatchery. Catfish seeds obtained from hatchery units and fish seed hubs that apply a good fish hatching method generally have good quality catfish with clear breeds.

2. Preparation of business media Catfish farming

In the business of catfish farms in the pond, the preparation of ponds is an important thing to note, usually the preparation process of this pond is often forgotten by the fish farmers. Preparation of this fish pond inside involves from:

    1. Improvement of pond embankment

    2. Cleaning the pond by removing the weeds that grow wild in the pond.

    3. liming fish ponds

        Purpose Liming on fish farming ponds.
        1. To raise the soil pH
        2. Accelerate decomposition of organic waste into nutrients
        3. eradicate fish pests
        4. Binds Mud plots that hover in the water so the water can be clear
        5. Binding excess CO2 produced respiration process / respiration of fish and microorganism
            and decomposition of organic waste

        type of lime used include: (CaCO3), (CaO), Ca (OH) 2, CaMg (CO3) 2.

    4. Fertilization of ponds

    5. Provision of salt on the pond

3. Maintaining Water Quality

   Terms of water quality for the needs and growth of catfish:

   1. Temperature 20 - 300C
       Water temperature in fish pond.
       Temperatures in fish farms can affect metabolic activity.
       temperature effect on growth rate of fish. the rate of growth will increase with the rise in     
       Fish is poikilotermis (fish body temperature is affected by water temperature around it).
       Drastic changes in temperature will affect the fish and can cause death in fish, due to changes in
       blood carrying capacity. the carrying capacity of the blood will be lower at high temperatures.
       In the process of stocking fish seeds the effect of temperature changes is very decisive on
       the level of fish life, the temperature of water in the container transport with water temperature
       in the fish pond may be different then with it to keep the drastic temperature level changes.
       then the fish when stocked need to acclimatization first so that fish do not become stress.

      2. pH 6-9

      The pH value in the General waters in nature is ranged between 4 - 9.

       The pH of water affects water fertility because the pH value affects the life of microorganisms.

       pH values ​​will affect a number of aquatic biology

       pH 6-6,5 plankton and bentos slightly decreased

       pH 5.5-6.0 decrease of plankton and benthic diversity. The filamentous green alga begins
       to appear on the littoral zone

       pH 5-5.5 The decrease in the diversity and the number of different types of plankton,
       and the bigger the bentos, the more filamentous green algae, the nitrification process
       will be inhibited. a decrease in total abundance and zooplankton biomass and benthos.

       pH 4.5 - 5 The decrease in the diversity and the number of different types of plankton,
       and the bigger the bentos, the more filamentous green algae, the nitrification process
       will be inhibited. Decrease in total abundance and biomass of zooplankton and benthos.

       in general, most aquatic biota prefer pH values ​​of about 7 - 8.5.

       pH value of pond water to fish farming

       pH <4.5 pond water is toxic to fish that is kept (acid pH)

        pH 5-6.5 fish growth rate will be inhibited and fish will be very sensitive to bacteria
        and parasites

        pH 6 - 9 in fish maintained, fish will experience good growth (optimal)

        pH> 9 growth rate of fish will be inhibited

      3. Dissolved oxygen at least 3 mg / l

       Oxygen is required by fish for the body's metabolic processes, which produce energy
       for activities such as activities for swimming, growth, reproduction.

       in the aquaculture water the concentration of the amount of oxygen required by the
       fish is between 4 - 7 ppm.

       The rate of growth of fish is influenced by the concentration of oxygen in water, with the
       determination of other optimum condition factors.

        Fish that have labyrinth (extra breathing apparatus) such as catfish (Clarias Sp), Sepat
        (Trichogaster sp), Cork (Channa striata),  Helostoma temmincki, gouramy (Osphronemus 
        gouramy), betok (Anabas testudineus) can live in waters with low oxygen conditions <3 ppm.
        The fish above can live in low oxygen waters conditions because they are equipped with
        additional breathing apparatus (labyrinths) that can function in the process of taking oxygen
        directly into the air above the water surface.

        The level of O2 consumption in the waters is influenced by 2 factors that are external factors
         and factors in:

         1. External factors:

         a. Partial Pressure: Conformer and regulator,
             Conformer consumption level of O2 depends on the state of O2 pressure,
             Regulator: O2 consumption level is relatively constant in the narrow oxygen partial
             pressure range.
         b. Temperature: Increased temperature, increased metabolic rate, other factors (food,
             salinity, CO2)

            2. Factor In.
           Fish body size, fish type, other factors (activity, mastery, sex, fish health condition).

 4. Carbon dioxide maximum 15 mg / l

      Carbon dioxide (CO2) in water is a gas needed by aquatic plants or aquatic plants for

      Carbon dioxide is easily soluble in water compared to oxygen, so it often expels and occupies
      the oxygen in the water.

      the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in water will prevent the process of diffusion
     of oxygen in the water, thereby reducing oxygen consumption and as compensation
     the fish will be active once breathing. this breathing activity requires calories and will
     reduce the opportunity to eat for the fish (decreased fish appetite will even disappear).

      carbon dioxide content in ponds of 5-15 ppm. can still be tolerated by fish, provided the oxygen
       levels are high enough.

5. Maximum ammonia 0.016 mg / l ,  Maximum nitrite 0.2 mg / l

    Ammonia (NH3) and Nitrite ((NO2) in fish pond water are exhaust gases from the metabolism of
    fish by protein reshuffle either from the feces of the fish itself (feces, urine) or from food scraps.

    The process of food decay, especially for materials that contain lots of protein will produce
    ammonium (NH4 +) and ammonia. when further process of decay does not take place then the
    NH3 decay until konsentrsai that endanger the fish.

    other than those resulting from the decomposition process of ammonia and nitrite. in water also   
    exposed to nitrate (NO3) is the result of oxidation of ammonia and especially nitrite.

    The amount of NH3 from total ammonia is influenced by temperature and water pH. the higher
    the temperature and the pH of the water the higher the percentage of NH3 concentration in the
    fish pond.


   6. brightness above 45 cm

       The brightness of the fish pond water.

       The brightness in the fish pond water is part of the light that is passed into the water and
        expressed by percent (%).

         The sunlight that penetrates the bottom of the pond is influenced by turbidity of water. while
         the turbidity of water is affected by:

         - the presence of microorganisms (plankton: Fithoplankton and zooplankton)

         - fine suspended objects (mud)

         - the color of the water

          the level of water brightness can determine and know the extent of the possibility of
          the process of assimilation in water.

          water that is not too cloudy and not too clear for fish life. good turbidity is the turbidity
          caused by microorganisms in the water (plankton). Plankton containing chlorophyll and
          photosynthesis are referred to as fithoplankton, while the plankton that eat fithoplankton
         because it is unable to perform photosynthesis is called zooplankton.

         turbidity of too muddy water caused by mud or, moreover, caused by iron hydroxide is
         very dangerous to fish. because the particles will be attached to the gills of fish that will
         interfere with the respiratory system of fish, consequently if the gills are disturbed the fish
         will be susceptible to diseases caused by protozoa and bacteria.

         For a good brightness value for fish farming that is equal to 45 cm (we can see into the
         water as far as 45 cm)

          The tool for measuring the brightness of the water is secchi (secchi disk). namely round
          pieces with a diameter of 20 cm made of zinc and painted in black and white.

          and the simple measurement is by using the palm of the hand dipped into the water.
          the calculation is that if the palm of the dipped hand does not appear as deep as the middle
          of the arm then the water is too cloudy, then the condition is not good for the life of the
           fish that is kept.

   7. total dissolved solids maximum 2.000 mg / l

   8. Copper (Cu) maximum of 0.02 mg / l


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